Not much has changed with location in Windows Apps. You still use a Geolocator and still subscribe to the PositionChanged event or get one time location with the GetPositionAsync method. However I had problems getting started with a new Windows 10 project. I subscribed to the PositionChanged event, but it never fired. I subscribed to the StatusChanged event and found location was disabled. I was originally testing on the phone emulator and found that phone apps accessing location will now prompt the user.
So the phone prompted me for access, why is location disabled? Turns out you still need to add the location capability to your manifest file. There is not yet a GUI editor for the manifest file, so you must edit it manually. In the Capabilities element, add the following:
Now run the app and you will have location data streaming in!
<DeviceCapability Name="location" />
If you are running your app on a desktop or tablet, you will NOT be prompted for location access within the device capability. This removes some of the confusion. Hopefully this behavior will be consistent come RTM.